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Instructions for Authors of Abstracts

for Consideration in the Special Issue to be published in Clinical Theriogenology

Introduction:  Authors are asked to consult a recent issue of Clinical Theriogenology for examples of the format used by the journal.  Instructions for authors are included in the forematter of each issue and should contain sufficient information to prepare acceptable manuscripts.  Specific examples of each section of the abstract are presented below.

Page layout:  One inch margins top, bottom, and sides; single spaced on one page; Times New Roman font; 12 point font

Title:  Bold font, centered, only first word and proper nouns upper case, remainder lower case
  Example:  Hydroallantois and prepubic tendon rupture in a Standardbred mare

Authors:  First name or initial, middle name or initial (if any), last name; separated by comma; departmental or institutional affiliation denoted by superscript letter (superscript numbers are used to cite references); superscript placed after punctuation; centered below title; do not include degrees or specialty board certification
 Example:  Madonna Jayne Wilda Morrison,a Bradley Back,a J. Trenton McClure,a Paul Hanna,a Claire Card,b Mariana Diel de Amorima

Institutional affiliation: Department, College, University, City, State abbreviation, Country (if other than the United States); do not include other information such as street address, zip (postal) code, etc.

            Example: aAtlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottown, PE, Canada; bWestern College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

 Text: Indent the first line of each paragraph by 0.5 inches; single spaced; do not leave extra space between paragraphs;

Abbreviations:  Abbreviations should be used sparingly; if a word is used only two or three times there is probably no need to abbreviate it.  If a word is used multiple times, then abbreviation is acceptable.  If abbreviations are used, define the abbreviation at its first use, then use the abbreviation thereafter.  Do not begin a sentence with an abbreviation; either write the word or revise the sentence.  Do not use abbreviations in titles. 

Keywords:  Authors should list up to six keywords that describe their work;

            Example:  Keywords: Equine, mucociliary, endoscopy, cervix, carbon

References: In general, most abstracts do not require bibliographic citation but if the authors wish to cite published literature, please follow the citation format used by the journal.  References are cited in order of use in the text by a superscript number placed after any punctuation.  Examples of acceptable citation format can be found in the instructions for authors in each issue of Clinical Theriogenology.
Example:  Hydroallantois in mares is a rare and life-threatening condition,1,2 which may lead to abdominal wall disease.2,3 



List only first three authors, if more than three, then “et al”

Last name of authors first; then initials; no periods after initials or spaces between initials

Comma between authors’ names

Colon  (:) after last author

Example:  Falvo RE, Buhl AE, Reimers TJ, et al:


First letter of first word capitalized; capitalize only proper nouns in title

Lower case letter of first word after colon if used in title

Upper case letter of first word after period if title is composed of multiple sentences

Period after the end of title


True hermaphroditism in a wild sheep: a clinical report.

Journal Title:

Use official journal title abbreviations as found in PubMed.  One word titles are not abbreviated.  If the title abbreviation cannot be found in PubMed, then consult the website “Appendix A:  Abbreviations for commonly used English words in journal titles” available at: 

Journal titles are in normal font, not italics.

One space between journal title and year of publication

Year of Publication:

Year of journal publication is followed by a semi-colon (;)

No space after year or after semi-colon

Volume Number

The volume number of the journal follows the semi-colon, no spaces and is followed by a colon

Issue numbers, months, etc are not included

Page Numbers

The inclusive page numbers are listed; if only the first page is listed, it gives the appearance that the work cited is an abstract and less worthy than a full manuscript.  All digits are given.  A period follows the page numbers.

Examples of proper citations:

Bruere AN, McDonald MF, Marshall RB: Cytogenetical analysis of an ovine male pseudohermaphrodite and the possible role of the Y chromosome in cryptorchidism of sheep. Cytogenetics 1969;8:148-157.


Falvo RE, Buhl AE, Reimers TJ, et al: Diurnal fluctuations of testosterone and LH in the ram: effect of HCG and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. J Reprod Fertil 1975;42:503-510.


Barrack ER, Berry SJ: DNA synthesis in the canine prostate: effects of androgen and estrogen treatment. Prostate 1987;10:45-56.


Parkinson TJ, Smith KC, Long SE, et al: Inter-relationships among gonadotrophins, reproductive steroids and inhibin in freemartin ewes. Reproduction 2001;122:397-409.


Bunch TD, Callan RJ, Maciulis A, et al: True hermaphroditism in a wild sheep: a clinical report. Theriogenology 1991;36:185-190.


Fayrer-Hosken RA, Huber TL, Miller DM, et al: Infertility in a ewe as a result of ovotestis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992;200:1528-1529.


Veterinary Clinics of North America looks like a book but it is a journal and should be so cited.


Johnson CA: Diagnosis and treatment of chronic vaginitis in the bitch. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1991;21:523-531.




Cite the authors of the chapter, not the editor(s) if a multi-author book

List the first three authors, followed by et al if there are more than three

Punctuation and spacing the same as above for authors of journal articles


Capitalize the first word of the title, then only proper nouns if they appear in the title

Period after the end of the title


List the editors of a multi-author book; list only the first three followed by et al if there are more than three editors

City of Publication:

List the city in which the book was published.  Include the state (if in the United States) if the city is small and not easily recognized by the reader; include the country if a small city is not in the US; followed by a colon


One space after colon, then list the publisher

Semi-colon after name of publisher


One space after semi-colon, then year of publication

Period after the year, followed by one space


Lower case “p”followed by a period and one space

Inclusive page numbers of chapter or section;

Period follows page numbers


Stone EA: Ovary and uterus. In: Slatter D, editor. Textbook of small animal surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2003. p. 1487-1502.


McKentee K: Cervix, vagina, and vulva. Reproductive pathology of domestic mammals. San Diego: Academic Press; 1990. p. 209-210.


Barth AD: Evaluation of potential breeding soundness. In: Youngquist RS, Threlfall WR, editors. Current therapy in large animal theriogenology. 2nd ed. St. Louis: W.B. Saunders; 2007. p. 228-240.


Maxwell H: Inability to breed due to injury or abnormality of the external genitalia of bulls. In: Hopper RM, editor. Bovine reproduction. Ames(IA): Wiley; 2015. p. 113-127. 

Common problems with words:

Spelling:  Please use American spelling throughout

Write out the entire word (examination, not exam; laboratory, not lab)

Plural words:  The words “data” and “media” are plural and take a plural verb (data were; media were); if singular use is intended, use datum and medium

Post:  The English word “post” has many meanings, none of which are “after”.  The prefix “post-“ means “after” but indiscriminant use of post- placed before random words has become jargon and is widely misused in print and electronic communication.  A few words such as “postpartum” have become standard English.  In many cases “after” or “following” are more appropriate words.  If you cannot find it in a dictionary, it is not a word.

Fetus:  The plural of “fetus” is “fetuses” 

Recommended reading:

Day R, Gastel B:  How to write and publish a scientific paper.  7th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2012.


1. Submission of an abstract for consideration in either the competitive or noncompetitive sessions is considered a commitment that, should the abstract be accepted in any of the categories, the appropriate author (as described in the Call for Abstracts) will be present at the SFT Annual Meeting to present the abstract in a formal oral or poster session.

2. If the appropriate author is not available to present the abstract at the SFT Annual Meeting, you may petition the Chair of the Scientific Abstract Committee to request permission for an alternative author to present the information. In the case of a competitive abstract for which the submitting graduate student/resident is not available to present the abstract but for which a suitable substitute presenter can be found, the abstract may still be included for presentation during the competitive session but it will not be scored and will not be eligible for awards.

3. In the event that no suitable person is available to present an accepted abstract or poster at the Annual Meeting, the submitting/presenting author will be barred from submission of Scientific Abstracts for consideration for presentation at the Annual Meeting and will be barred from speaking at the Annual Meeting for a period of five (5) years. All other authors will be barred from submission of Scientific Abstracts for consideration for presentation at the Annual Meeting and will be banned from speaking at the Annual Meeting for one (1) year.

4. Penalized authors have the right to petition the Executive Board of the American College of Theriogenologists for a reduction or waiver of the penalty. A written petition that includes the reason for the absence from the meeting should be submitted to the Chair of the Scientific Abstract Committee no later than 1 week before the Annual Meeting. The Chair and other members of the Abstract Committee will review the petition and present the case to the EB at the August business meeting. Authors will be notified of the decision of the Board by email after the conclusion of the annual meeting.

Questions on proper formatting of your abstract should be directed to:

Augustine T. Peter (editor) at


Mission Statement

The mission of the ACT is to promote animal well-being, reproductive health, responsible breeding and genetic practices, and efficient management of breeding-age animals in agriculture, veterinary practice, zoos, preserves, and ecosystems. In particular, the ACT envisions development of focus areas in theriogenology to incorporate the following in theriogenology/reproductive medicine:

1. Population control for domestic and non-domestic animals including feral animals, free-ranging and captive wildlife.

2. Genomics in livestock and companion animal practice.

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