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JAVMA Question of the Month
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Theriogenology Question of the Month - JAVMA


Author(s): Perkins NR, Hardy J, Frazier G, et al.
Published: October 15, 1996
Species: Equine - Colic in a late-term gestation mare (uterine torsion)


Author(s): Archbald LF, Wolfsdorf K
Published: May 15, 1996
Species: Canine - Vaginal stricture in a bitch


Author(s): Wolfsdorf K
Published: January 15, 1996
Species: Equine - Placental dysfunction from twin pregnancy


Author(s): Sedrish SA, Valdes-Vasquez MA, Oliver J
Published: August 15, 1996
Species: Equine - Granulosa cell tumor in a mare


Author(s): Waldow D
Published: March 15, 1996
Species: Equine - Uterine rupture in a mare; postpartum complications


Author(s): Sedrish SA, Johnson PJ
Published: January 15, 1997
Species: Equine - Hemoperitoneum associated with ovarian hematoma


Author(s): Blanchard TL, Varner DD, Brinsko SP
Published: December 15, 1996
Species: Equine - Seminal and hormone values in stallion with hematocele


Author(s): Pinto C, Paccamonti D, Eilts B, et al.
Published: September 15, 1996
Species: Bovine - Unilateral scrotal hydrocele in a bull


Author(s): Nie GJ, Johnston SD
Published: May 15, 1998
Species: Canine - 79,XXY Chromosome complement in a male dog


Author(s): Waldow D
Published: January 15, 1999
Species: Caprine - Ultrasound diagnosis of hydrometra


Author(s): Buote PL, Ragle CA, Memon MA
Published: September 15, 1997
Species: Equine - Complete hymen in 2 mares


Author(s): Archbald LF, Waldow D
Published: May 15, 1997
Species: Canine - Leydig cell tumor in a dog


Author(s): Burba DJ,Sedrish,SA, Paccamonti DL
Published: November 15, 1996
Species: Equine - Cryptorchid stallion identified by hormonal testing


Author(s): Schlafer DH, Yeager AE, Concannon PW
Published: March 15, 1997
Species: Canine - Endometrial polyp in a dog


Author(s): Hawkins JF, Sertich P, Dallap BL, Pozor MA
Published: July 15, 1997
Species: Equine - Hydroallantois in a mare


Author(s): Sedrish, SA and Seahorn T
Published: January 15, 1998
Species: Equine - Penile hematoma in a horse


Author(s): Mirza MH, Paccamonti D, Martin GS, and Ramirez S
Published: November 15, 1997
Species: Equine - Rupture of prepubic tendon in a mare


Author(s): Estill CE
Published: March 15, 1998
Species: Canine - Altrenogest to maintain pregnancy in a bitch


Author(s): Kasaback CM, Rashmir-Raven AM, Black SS
Published: September 15, 1999
Species: Equine - Orchitis/periorchitis in a stallion


Author(s): Pinto CRF, Eilts BE, Paccamonti DL, Burba DJ
Published: July 15, 1998
Species: Equine - Torsion of the testis and spermatic cord in a stallion


Author(s): Trasti SL, Schlafer DL
Received: 2-28-98
Published: March 15, 1999
Species: Canine - Ovarian malignant teratoma


Author(s): Mirza MH, Costa LRR, Paccamonti D, and Seahorn TL
Published: November 15, 1998
Species: Equine - Fescue toxicosis in a mare


Author(s): Root Kustritz MV, Merkel L
Published: September 15, 1998
Species: Canine - Unusual benign prostatic hypertrophy


Author(s): Estill CT, McCain D
Published: November 15, 1999
Species: Bovine - Lymphosarcoma in a bull with a large scrotum


Author(s): Purswell BJ, Parker NA, Bailey TL, Dascanio JJ, Sponenburg DP
Published: July 15, 1999
Species: Canine - granulosa cell tumor in a bitch


Author(s): DiGrassie WA, Dascanio JJ, Ley WB, Newman SJ, Prater DA
Published: March 15, 2000
Species: Equine - Premature lactation in a mare due to pregnancy in the uterine body


Author(s): Root Kustritz MV, Olson PN
Published: May 15, 1999
Species: Canine - Priapism in a dog


Author(s): von Reitzenstein M, Archbald L, and Newell SM
Published: April 15, 2000
Species: Feline - Pyometra in a queen


Author(s): Root Kustritz MV
Published: January 15, 2000
Species: Canine-Brucellosis diagnostic testing

Author(s): Bedford S, McDonnell S.
Published: February 15, 2000
Species: Equine - Sexual behavior problem in a 9-year-old stallion


Author(s): Hasler AH, Weber WT
Published: May 15, 2000
Species: Canine- transmissible venereal tumor on penis of a dog


Author(s): Nack RA
Published: July 15, 2000
Species: Feline-Ectopic pregnancy in a spayed cat


Author(s): Wolfsdorf K, Williams NM, Donahue JM
Published: June 15, 2000
Species: Equine - Abortion in a mare as a result of focal bacterial placentitis


Author(s): Blanchard TL, Woods JA, Brinsko SP
Published: Sept 15, 2000
Species: Equine - Stallion with azoospermia due to bilateral hypoplasia of epididymus


Author(s): Bodri MS
Published: Nov 15, 2000
Species: Exotic (ferret) - Unilateral cryptorchidism in a male ferret


Author(s): Kutzler MA
Published: January 15, 2001
Species: Equine - Endometrial cups in uterus of mare undergoing endoscopy


Author(s): Peavey CL, Trostle SS, Bosu WTK, Cooley AJ.
Published: March 15, 2001
Species: Bovine - Ovarian abscess in a cow


Author(s): Kutzler MA
Published: September 15, 2001
Species: Equine - Turner’s syndrome in a mare


Author(s): Garcia-Seco E, Paccamoti DL, et al.
Published: August 15, 2001.
Species: Bovine - Vaginal, cervical, and uterine prolapse in a Beefmaster cow


Author(s):Pinto CRF, Paccamonti DL, Partington B, McFadden K
Published: November 15, 2001
Species: Canine - Unilateral testicular enlargement attributable to spermatic cord torsion in a dog


Author(s): Rosenkranz KS, Hardin DK, Watson D
Published: May 15, 2001
Species: Bovine - Analysis of poor pregnancy rate in a group of synchronized heifers

Author(s): Root Kustritz M.
Published: October 15, 2001
Species: Feline - Ovarian remnant that contained a teratoma


Author(s): Edens MSD, Heath AM
Published: December 15, 2001
Species: Canine – Vaginal leiomyoma in a bitch


Author(s): Root Kustritz MV, Wittmer Vizecky KL
Published: July 15, 2002
Species: Canine – Hormone testing to determine sexually intact status of a female dog


Author(s): Root Kustritz MV
Published: March 15, 2002
Species: Canine – Relaxin assay for pregnancy diagnosis in a mismated bitch


Author(s): Root Kustritz MV
Published: January 15, 2002
Species: Canine – Open-cervix pyometra in a bitch


Author(s): Pacchiana PD, Root Kustritz MV
Published: May 15, 2002
Species: Canine – Ovarian remnant syndrome in a bitch


Author(s): Blanchard TL, Boothe DM, Woods JA, Brinsko SP, Varner DD
Published: September 15, 2002
Species: Equine – Use of enrofloxacin to treat a stallion with seminal vesiculitis


Author(s): Bentley VA, Rashmir-Raven A.
Published: November 15, 2002
Species: Equine – Bilateral hydrocele in a gelding


Author(s): Willeford B, Character BJ, Sidaway BK
Species: Canine – Histologic diagnosis of an ovarian dysgerminoma in a 13-year-old Chihuahua with pyometra (Same as ms 01-11-0527)


Author(s): Edwards JF, Angulo AB, Pannill E.
Published: May 15, 2003
Species: Caprine – Cache Valley virus-induced malformations in newborn goats


Author(s): Strelow LW
Published: November 15, 2003
Species: Bovine – Mid-gestation abortion in a herd of cattle attributable to Campylobacter jejuni


Author(s): Hinojosa AM, Holyoak GR, Moll HD, Ritchey JW
Published: September 15, 2003
Species: Equine – Extraluminal leiomyosarcoma in the uterus of a mare


Author(s): Grundy SA, Davidson AP
Published: March 15, 2004
Species: Canine – Retained fetus in a bitch


Author(s): Aljarrah AH, Gill MS, Sod GA
Published: May 15, 2004
Species: Bovine – Lymphosarcoma in the reproductive tract of a pregnant beef cow with stranguria


Author(s): Gobello C, Baschar DA, Tortor M, Giordano A
Published: July 15, 2004
Species: Canine – Pregnancy in a bitch after mating to a vasectomized dog


Author(s): Allison N
Published: September 15, 2004
Species: Bovine – aborted beef calf with ichthyosis fetalis


Author(s): Slater LA, Davidson AP, Dahlinger JG
Published: November 15, 2004
Species: Canine – Acute peritonitis secondary to intra-abdominal deposition of semen in a bitch


Author(s): Raggio I, Lefebvre R, Vaillancourt D
Published: January 15, 2005
Species: Equine- Persistent hymen in a mare


Author(s): Willis LA, Riddle WT
Published: March 15, 2005
Species: Equine – Retention of endometrial cups with subsequent mineralization


Author(s): Dascanio JJ, Witonsky S
Received: 8-13-04
Published: July 15, 2005
Species: Equine – Urospermia in a stallion


Author(s): Threlfall WR, Robertson JT, Oglesbee MJ, Munsterman AD, Hubbell JAE
Published: May 15, 2005
Species: Equine – Sertoli cell and interstitial cell tumors in testes of a stallion


Author(s): Hardy RM, Root Kustritz MV
Published: September 15, 2005
Species: Canine – Hypospadias in a dog


Author(s): Lefebvre RC, Belanger AM
Published: November 15, 2005
Species: Bovine - Cystic Gartner duct in a neonatal calf


Author(s): Gray GA, Dascanio JJ, Kolster K
Published: January 15, 2006
Species: Equine – Treatment of a mare pregnant with twins at 150 days of gestation


Author(s): Corrada Y, Hermo G, Gobello C
Published: March 15, 2006
Species: Canine – Infertility in a prepubertal male Poodle


Author(s): Christensen BW, Troedsson MHT, Roberts JF, Pozor MA, Eichlberger AC
Published: May 15, 2006
Species: Equine – Hemorrhagic vulvar discharge in a late-gestation mare


Author(s): Harbo JM, Mausling RD, Schlafer DH, Vanderwall DK
Published: July 15, 2006
Species: Equine – Ossified remnant of yolk sac in placenta of mare


Author(s): Scoggin CF, McCue PM
Published: November 15, 2006
Species: Equine – Rupture of uterine vessel during parturition in a mare


Author(s): Zacharias JR, Baird AN, Hawkins JF.
Published: September 15, 2006
Species: Bovine – Laparoscopic unilateral cryptorchidectomy in two bulls


Author(s): Dallmeyer MD, Turner RM, McDonnell SU, Sertich PL, Dolente B, Diaz O
Published: August 15, 2006
Species: Equine – Sperm accumulation and nephrolith-associated self-directed aggression in a stallion


Author(s): Root Kustritz MV, Fick JL
Published: January 15, 2007
Species: Canine – Benign mesenchyoma in penis of a dog


Author(s): Chenier T, Koenig J, Estrada A
Published: May 15, 2007
Species: Equine – Traumatic breeding injury in a stallion


Author(s): Roberson JR, Andrews G
Published: March 15, 2007
Species: Porcine – Bilateral interstitial cell tumors in a pot-bellied pig


Author(s): Christensen BW, Ernst N, Powe JR, Pozor MA, Morton AJ
Published: August 15, 2007
Species: Equine - Bilateral seminoma in a stallion


Author(s): Kutzler MA, Hofmaster IL
Published: July 15, 2007
Species: Equine - Complete atresia or aplasia of the tubular reproductive tract in a mare


Author(s): Marley MSD, Rynders PE
Published: September 15, 2007
Species: Canine – Management of Brucella canis in a kennel


Author(s): Luby CD, Middleton JR, Youngquist RS, Kim DY, Evans TJ
Published: November 15, 2007
Species: Bovine – Sertoli cell tumor in testis of a 1-month old Aberdeen Angus calf


Author(s): Hodder ADJ, Ball BA
Published: January 15, 2008
Species: Equine – Dystocia attributable to a fetus with hydrocephalus


Author(s): Estrada A, Ferrer MS, Brounts SH, Milligan MA, Lullich JD
Published: May 15, 2008
Species: Equine – Inflammatory endometrial polyp in a Quarter Horse mare


Author(s): Root Kustritz MV
Published: March 15, 2008
Species: Canine – Vulvar discharge in a diestrous bitch


Author(s): Schwarze RA and Threlfall WR
Published: July 15, 2008
Species: Canine—Persistent proestrus in a bitch due to ingestion of an estrogen-containing skin cream


Author(s): Holmes SP, Memon MA, Fite C
Published: January 15, 2009
Species: Canine—Dystocia and fetal ingestion in a bitch


Author(s):  Burns J, Petersen N
Published: November 15, 2008
Species: Canine—Testing to detect monorchidism in a male dog


Author(s):  Occhipinti LL, Carleton CL, Holcombe SJ, Chaney KP, Agnew DW
Published: March 15, 2009
Species: Equine - Dystocia in a mare because of fetal schistosomus reflexus


Author(s): Tranquillo GG, Kelleman AA, Sertich PL
Published: November 15, 2009
Species: Equine – Pyometra in a mare


Author(s): Beltaire KA, Tanco VM, Bedford-Guaus SJ
Published: January 15, 2011
Species: Equine – Successful medical management of traumatic paraphimosis in a stallion


Author(s): Pearson LK, Rodriguez JS, Tibary A
Published: May 15, 2011
Species: Bovine – Amorphous globosus in a Holstein cow


Author(s): Vidal G, Traslavina R, Cabrera C, Gaffney P, Lane V
Published: November 15, 2011
Species: Bovine – Hypospadias in the penis of a bull


Author(s): Shuster K, Nemzek-Hamlin J, Baker N, Bergin I, Nowland M
Published: January 15, 2012
Species: Monkey – Endometriosis in a macaque


Author(s): Ferrer M, Anderson D, Jones M, Miesner M, Raudesepp T, Avila F, Kutzler M
Published: September 15, 2012         
Species: Camelid- Segmental aplasia of uterine horn and mucometra in an alpaca


Author(s): Radcliffe RM, Wittea TH, Fubini SL, Ducharme NG, Cheong SH, Gilbert RO
Published: August 15, 2012
Species: Bovine - Surgical treatment of preputial injury secondary to blunt trauma in a bull


Author(s): Whitlock BK, Bray, K, Himmelreich E, Maxwell HS
Published: January 15, 2013
Species: Caprine- Pyometra in a hemicastrated horned male Pygmy goat chimera with 60XX/60XY


Author(s): Peek S, Momont H, Mueller T, Bell C
Published: December 15, 2012
Species: Bovine – Suburethral recess dilation in 2 sibling Holstein bulls

Author(s):  Vanderwall DK, Price DK, Stott RD, Baldwin TJ
Published: September 15, 2013
Species: Equine - Diagnosis of a granulosa cell tumor in a mare by assay of anti-Müllerian hormone


Author(s): Myers J, Dujovne G, Galuppo LD, Conley AJ, Moore PF, Mok MY, Aristizabal FA, Christensen BW
Published: July 15, 2014
Species: Equine - Large granulosa theca cell tumor in a mare and a novel surgical approach for removal


Author(s): McNaughton JW, MacPherson ML, Freeman DE, Dymock DC, Wamsley HL, Pozor MA, Kelleman AA
Published: May 15, 2014
Species: Equine - Seminoperitoneum (seminal peritonitis) in a mare secondary to a full-thickness vaginal laceration following natural breeding


Author(s): Fraser NS, Johnson AK, Armstrong CL, Wilborn RR
Published: September 15, 2014
Species: Equine - Options for delivery of a hydranencephalic fetus in a mare


Author(s): Voge JL, Edwards JF, Love CC, Blanchard TL
Published: April 15, 2015
Species: Equine – Stallion with enlarged hemiscrotum and lymphangioma; unilateral castration

Author(s): Scott CJ, Christensen BW, DeChant JE, Espinosa P, LaDouceur EEB
Published: November 15, 2015.
Species: Equine – Multiple tumors in genitalia of Lusitano stallion


Author(s): Roberts JE, Carleton CL, Conley AJ, Agnew DW
Published: July 15, 2015
Species: Bovine – Endocrine testing for granulosa cell tumor in a heifer


Author(s): Ferrer MS, Schulz K, Anderson D
Published: October 15, 2015
Species: Camelid – Monochorionic diamnionic twin pregnancy and late abortion in an alpaca


Author(s): Runcan EE, Smith AD, Roff SR, Wickins SC, Sheppard BJ, Castleman WL, Kelleman AA
Published: December 15, 2015.
Species: Caprine – Uterine leiomyosarcoma in a doe


Author(s): Armstrong CL, Koziol JH, Maxwell HS, Wolfe DF, Ghosh S
Published: May 15, 2016
Species: Caprine – Intersex male polled goat with polled intersex syndrome


Author(s): Prell MJ, Canisso IF, Secor EJ, Gutierrez-Nibeyro SJ, Schlafer DH, Ellerbrock RE,
Published: April 15, 2016
Species: Equine – Use of anti-Mullerian hormone to ensure complete removal of atrophied cryptorchid abdominal testis in a stallion


Author(s): Armstrong CL, Koziol JH, Maxwell HS, Wolfe DF, Ghosh S
Published: May 15, 2016
Species: Caprine – Intersex male polled goat with polled intersex syndrome


Author(s): Rush JB, Newcomer BW, Kozoil JH, Maxwell HS, Wolfe DF
Published: February 15, 2017
Species: Bovine – Unilateral scrotal enlargement with intestinal herniation in a bull


Author(s): Boye JK, Byrne BA, Alex CE, Affolter VK, Christensen BW, Dujovne GA
Published: October 15, 2017
Species: Equine – Abortion in a mare attributable to fungal infection


 Author(s): Cole RC, Rush J, Edmondson MA, Wolfe DF, Schumacher J
Published: November 15, 2017
Species: Bovine – Multiple vascular shunts in a bull


Author(s): Branecky DA, Javsicas LH, Mort JD, Watkins AR, McNaughten JW
Published: March 15, 2018
Species: Equine – Retained hippomane as a cause of pyrexia in a postpartum mare


Author(s): Martins-Bessa A, Frada M, Libre F
Published: April 15, 2018
Species: Canine – Unilateral scrotal enlargement in a 3-year-old dog


Author(s): Koziol JH, Walz H, Maxwell HS, Passler T, Wolfe DW
Published: May 15, 2018
Species: Bovine – Sperm granuloma in a bull


Author(s): Lyman CC, Hornberger KT, Hallman RM, Holyoak GR
Published: November 15, 2018
Species: Canine – Mating management of an infertile bitch with fluid pooling in the uterus

Mission Statement

The mission of the ACT is to promote animal well-being, reproductive health, responsible breeding and genetic practices, and efficient management of breeding-age animals in agriculture, veterinary practice, zoos, preserves, and ecosystems. In particular, the ACT envisions development of focus areas in theriogenology to incorporate the following in theriogenology/reproductive medicine:

1. Population control for domestic and non-domestic animals including feral animals, free-ranging and captive wildlife.

2. Genomics in livestock and companion animal practice.

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